The gender pay gap refers to the gap between what women earn in income and what men earn in income. Studies that have looked directly at worker productivity show little evidence of a maternity penalty for productivity. A recent study by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, which examined the productivity of academic economists, found that women with children were more productive over the course of their careers than women without children (Krapf, Ursprung, & Zimmerman, 2014). In addition, women with two children were more productive than women with one child. Another study of workers, a group chosen because of the belief that there would likely be differences in productivity by gender, found that women were generally as productive as men (Petersen, Snartland, & Milgrom, 2006). In Luxembourg, the overall gender pay gap is 32.5%.  The gender pay gap between full-time employees in gross monthly wages has narrowed in recent years. According to the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), the gender pay gap narrowed by more than 10% between 2002 and 2015.  The difference also depends on the age group. Women between the ages of 25 and 34 receive a higher salary than men during this period. One of the reasons for this is that they have a higher level of education at this age. From the age of 35, men earn higher wages than women.
 The gender pay gap is a measure of the gender pay gap. While it can be measured in a variety of ways, the data is clear: women are still paid much less than men (about 83 cents per dollar, according to our measure), and progress in closing the gap is at a standstill. Other research shows that gender bias among teachers has a negative impact on girls, with the worst effects on girls from less wealthy families and girls whose fathers have more school years than their mothers (Lavy and Sands 2015). Non-governmental organizations apply the calculation to different samples. Some indicate how the calculation was performed and on which data set.  The gender pay gap can be measured, for example, by ethnicity, city, workplace or within a single organisation.    Contrary to what some may believe, today`s educational choices remain gender-specific. For example, senior men who graduated in 2008 were more than five times more likely than their female counterparts to have studied engineering and engineering technology, while women in the same year were three times more likely than their male counterparts to have studied pedagogy (NCES 2011/2015).
There is a pay gap in Russia (after 1991 and before), and statistical analyses show that most of this gap cannot be explained by lower qualifications of women than men. On the other hand, occupational segregation by sex and discrimination in the labour market seem to be a large part of it.       The gender pay gap is exacerbated by the lack of flexible and family-friendly measures that allow women and men to balance family responsibilities and working hours. In Australia, women spend 64.4% of their average weekly working hours on unpaid care, compared to 36.1% for men. For every hour Australian men spend on unpaid care and household chores, Australian women commit to one hour and 48 minutes. Notes: We define gender-specific occupations as occupations in which more than 75% of employees belong to one gender. This definition is based on the definition of “traditional” occupations in the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998, at pp. 250-6. Employment figures are calculated on average over the period 2011-2015.
There is also evidence that men benefit disproportionately from incentive wages (Albanesi, Olivetti and Prados 2015). Female executives receive a smaller share of incentive pay than their male counterparts, and this difference accounts for 93% of the total gender pay gap (Albanesi, Olivetti and Prados 2015). Performance pay also rewards male executives disproportionately. The researchers found that every $1 million increase in company value results in a $17,150 increase in company-specific wealth for male executives, but only a $1,670 increase for their female counterparts (Albanesi, Olivetti, and Prados 2015). This research suggests that women are harmed by incentive wages at the top of the income spectrum in two ways: (1) women are less likely to be rewarded with incentive wages if they hold high-level leadership positions, and (2) they are less likely to reach the command levels of the economy where they would receive a larger portion of their salary through an incentive structure. In the EU, working women earn on average 14% less per hour than men. Find out how this gender pay gap is calculated and why. The history of the gender and racial pay gap is inextricably linked to the history of labor in America. From the deprivation of wages for black women under slavery and its consequences, to the creation of lasting inequalities in health, education and opportunities for indigenous women through land theft, to legal and cultural restrictions on women`s ability to earn money, our nation`s history is full of discrimination and its consequences. Last month, the Agency for Gender Equality in the Workplace (`the Agency`) published a quiz testing the public`s knowledge of the gender pay gap.
Since its publication, the agency has received more than 500 responses. The average score was 71% – 9.2 out of 13. About one in five respondents scored between 90% and 100%. .